College Students' Mental Health: Common Problems & How to Get (or Provide) Help

College Students' Mental HealthProtecting college students' mental health is an important issue on campuses everywhere. After all, more students are experiencing mental health problems now than in the past. In fact, 95 percent of campus counseling center directors say they are concerned about increasing rates of serious psychological issues among students.1 Fortunately, our understanding of mental health issues and how to treat them has made great progress over the last decade.

Here's the most important fact: Mental health problems are common, treatable, and nobody's fault. If you're worried about your own psychological well-being or that of someone close to you, help is available. Reaching out for assistance can feel hard at first, but it will get easier. Reading this guide is a great step toward understanding the challenges that students can face in college and how to deal with them.

This guide describes a variety of mental health problems and their symptoms, as well as tips for maintaining good psychological health. You'll also find mental health resources for college students who need immediate assistance, whether you're worried about yourself or about someone close to you.

Why Mental Health Is a Vital Issue for College Students

Going to college or university is an exciting time, filled with opportunities for personal growth and amazing discoveries. But despite the many positive experiences they can have, a lot of students have problems with their mental health. Statistics show that about 39 percent of U.S. students will experience a mental health challenge while they're at college.2 And this issue is global: mental health problems were reported by 35 percent of first-year students in a study—lead by Randy Auerbach—based on data collected by the World Health Organization from 14,000 students in eight countries.3

Why are mental health problems so common in college? Stress is a big reason. Going to college can be a bit of a paradox: As a student, you may be thrilled with your increased independence and new opportunities, but you also may be overwhelmed. Add in possible relationship or family issues, financial worries, or uncertainty about future plans, and you can have a lot of stress to deal with.

In one study, three out of four students said they'd experienced a stressful life event in the previous year—on top of the normal stress of college.4 In addition, as the cost of tuition increases, you might feel even more pressure to perform well and get a good job after you graduate since college is such a big investment.

As well, many students often start college at a vulnerable time for their mental health. That's because 75 percent of mental health problems appear before the age of 24, and the symptoms of some psychological disorders often first appear in the late teens and early 20s.2 Scientists are still investigating the link between age and psychological disorders, but they're learning that our brains undergo significant changes well into our 20s.

One thing is clear: Mental illness can definitely affect learning and students' college experiences. And dropout rates are higher for students who have psychological problems. Fortunately, great progress has been made in treating mental illness. But we need to overcome the stigma around asking for help.

Is There a Mental Health Stigma on College Campuses?

Mental Health Stigma on College CampusesHave you ever heard the saying, "Don't compare your inside to someone else's outside"? Or, to put it another way, "Don't compare your bloopers to someone else's highlight reel"? When you're at college, it can feel as if everyone else has their act together and you're the only one struggling. After all, you're surrounded by ambitious people on their path to success, right? And movies and TV shows often show us images of happy college students strolling through leafy campuses.

Whether or not you buy into that, it can be hard to admit that you need help. Although many people are starting to speak out more about their emotional struggles, mental health stigmas still exist. Students can be afraid of seeming weak, incompetent, or "crazy." They might feel too embarrassed to get help or be afraid that telling someone about a mental health issue could haunt them in the future.

So stigma affects mental health by keeping students from getting help when they need it. In fact, in one survey, 50 percent of students who dropped out due to mental health concerns said they did not seek help through campus mental health services before they left school.5

In other words, don't be afraid to get help if you need it. You're not alone. The majority of college students struggle with their feelings at least some of the time. Every student has experienced negative emotions. Telling someone is the first step toward getting treatment, and treatment for mental illness does work.

Here's something else to think about: You wouldn't feel ashamed of seeking help for a physical illness or injury, so you shouldn't treat a mental health problem any differently. And if you think you don't have time to find help because you have too much studying to do, consider this: Seven out of 10 students who visited their college counseling center said that getting mental health treatment improved their performance at school.6

What's the solution? Perhaps we can prevent mental health stigma by making it easier to access care and staying open to talking about mental health problems. We can also listen attentively to those who experience these issues.

Also, the National Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI) offers the StigmaFree pledge that you can sign, along with additional steps you can take to help other students on your campus become more open to talking about mental health issues.

Mental Health Issues That College Students Can Face

Mental Health IssuesBecause college life can involve a lot of stress and many changes, you might be unsure of whether you're experiencing normal reactions and emotions or troubling mental health symptoms. That's OK. You don't have to know the answers. Talking to someone can help you figure out what's happening.

Below are some of the most common causes of mental illness in college students. Keep in mind that these are broad descriptions, and by no means are they substitutes for medical advice. If you recognize anything about yourself when reading about these problems, you may end up wondering, "Am I mentally ill?" But don't diagnose yourself. Instead, consider talking to someone or contacting one of the mental health resources listed in the next section.

1. Anxiety

Anxiety is the most common mental health problem that students visit campus counseling offices for.7 And 61 percent of college students have anxiety that is overwhelming, according to a survey of students who use campus counseling services.7 But college is filled with transitions, so some anxiety in college students is normal. After all, a lot of students are dealing with academic pressure, many students have financial concerns, and they all face a lot of big decisions in the future. Who wouldn't feel at least a little anxious occasionally? But the following symptoms of anxiety can interfere with everyday life and make it hard to focus on classes:

  • You feel overwhelmed with worries. In fact, you feel as if you never stop worrying about something.
  • You have trouble thinking about anything else.
  • You feel particularly anxious about a specific object or activity to the point where you go out of your way to avoid it. This can be the result of a phobia disorder.
  • You feel as if using drugs or alcohol will help you to get a grip on your anxiety.
  • You feel physically ill from worrying. Perhaps your stomach hurts a lot, you have headaches, or your pulse is always racing.

If you're feeling as if anxiety is making you physically sick, or if your worries are preventing you from enjoying your life, talk to your doctor or campus mental health center.

As well, writing down your anxious thoughts can help you sort through them. Two good books for journaling about anxiety are:

2. Depression

Depression among college students is also common. In fact, according to one survey, almost 43 percent of college students are depressed, which they say has negatively affected their ability to function over the prior year.8 Being depressed in college can make it difficult to go to class or even get out of bed, so it can really impact a student's college life. Symptoms can include:

  • An "empty" feeling for no reason you can put your finger on
  • Losing interest in things you used to enjoy
  • Physical symptoms like headaches or digestive issues
  • Sleeping too much or too little
  • Overreacting to little annoyances
  • Unexplained tiredness
  • Feeling worthless or hopeless

Students experience depression in many different ways. Some people hide it very well, but they feel hopeless and lonely on the inside. And it's important to realize that, as with many other issues around mental health, depression can have physical causes. So the solution isn't always as simple as improving your attitude or looking at the bright side. The good news is that there are many ways to successfully treat depression. Learning about depression in college and how to deal with it can really help.

But remember: Depression can increase a person's risk of suicide. If you or someone you know is contemplating suicide, call the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline at 1-800-273-TALK (8255).

3. Eating disorders

Eating disorders can affect both males and females. According to the National Eating Disorders Association (NEDA), between 10 and 20 percent of female college students and four to 10 percent of male college students experience an eating disorder.9 The pressure of college, combined with a new lack of parental supervision at mealtimes, can create an environment that triggers eating disorders in susceptible students. The three main types of eating disorders are:

  • Anorexia—People with anorexia are so concerned about gaining weight that they restrict their food intake drastically and/or exercise compulsively.
  • Bulimia—People with bulimia binge on large amounts food, then they purge it by either throwing up, taking laxatives, or exercising for long amounts of time.
  • Binge-eating disorder—This is the most common eating disorder in the U.S. People with binge-eating disorder binge on large quantities of food, but they do not purge afterwards.

An eating disorder isn't just a diet gone overboard. And going to college and being able to eat whatever you want isn't the cause of an eating disorder. Eating disorders are medical conditions with a complex combination of causes, and they can be life-threatening.

The National Eating Disorders Association Helpline is available from 9:00 a.m. to 9:00 p.m. (EST) Monday through Thursday or 9:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. (EST) on Fridays at 1-800-931-2237, excluding most holidays.

4. Bipolar disorder

Symptoms of bipolar disorder often first appear in the late teens or early 20s, so it's not surprising that students can experience their first episode while at college. Just over three percent of college students have been diagnosed with bipolar disorder.10

A bipolar episode can be either manic or depressive. A person with bipolar disorder can swing between the two extremes. In a manic episode, a person feels "wired" or jumpy. He or she is filled with energy and might make impulsive decisions or have trouble focusing. In a depressive episode, a person is tired, empty, or sad or has suicidal thoughts. The swings between mania and depression may not make sense to outside observers. But they are difficult to control for a person with bipolar disorder.

5. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

PTSD can develop after witnessing or experiencing a traumatic event. Many things can trigger PTSD, but common causes include military service, natural disasters, illnesses, accidents, the death or sickness of a loved one, or sexual assault. But experiencing trauma doesn't necessarily mean you will develop PTSD.

People with PTSD often relive the traumas they experienced over and over by replaying them in their minds. This creates a state of hypervigilance because their bodies remain in "flight or fight" mode. Flashbacks and nightmares are common in people with PTSD, and they may avoid situations or other people that remind them of their traumas. About 10 percent of students have symptoms of PTSD, with physical or sexual assault being the most common causes for students.11

The book The Body Keeps the Score goes into the physical and emotional effects of PTSD and offers concrete suggestions for healing.

If you think you might have PTSD symptoms following a sexual assault, call the National Sexual Assault Hotline at 1-800-656-HOPE (4673). An online chat option is also available.

6. Schizophrenia

Schizophrenia is another one of the mental health disorders that often first appears during the college years. About three in 1,000 college students have been diagnosed with schizophrenia.12 A person with schizophrenia may experience hallucinations, irrational suspicions, and delusions. He or she can appear to be overly excited or manic. The symptoms and progression of schizophrenia vary a lot from person to person. We don't know why this is, nor do we know exactly what causes schizophrenia. But researchers are making progress in treating it.

7. Addiction

Addiction issues can be hard to diagnose in college. After all, binge drinking and experimental drug use are common on campuses. And many students turn to drugs and alcohol to help them cope with new social situations and stress. But college alcoholism is no laughing matter.

How do you know if social drinking or drug use has become a mental health problem for you or someone you know? As a general rule, if you wonder whether it's a problem, it might be one. If drinking or drugs are causing difficulties in your social life or with your academic performance, consider talking to someone. Through its ScreenU programs, the Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Drug Misuse Prevention and Recovery offers online self-assessments that can help you evaluate the role of alcohol, marijuana, or prescription drugs in your life.

You can find plenty of help if you're worried about your own drinking or drug use or that of a friend or relative. These organizations are excellent starting points:

How to Protect Your Mental Health

Protect Your Mental HealthAlong with minimizing stress and establishing a support system, you can maintain good mental health in college by staying physically healthy and rested. It's also important to remember that psychological problems can appear without any obvious cause. So don't blame yourself if you struggle. Mental health issues aren't your fault. But you can improve your mental wellness by following these tips:

1. Get help if you think you might need it.

You don't need to be at a crisis point in order to reach out. If you're worried about your mental health, get help. Who can you talk to? Most campuses have counseling centers. In response to growing concerns about mental health on college campuses, many of these centers are expanding their hours and services. To find out more, check the website for your college. Mental health assistance is often available through college health services offices at schools that don't have a counseling center.

If mental health care on campus is not an option, consult your doctor, talk to a parent, or reach out to a friend who can help you find resources near you.

You can also contact one of these mental health resources:

  • The National Suicide Prevention Lifeline is available any time. Call 1-800-273-TALK (8255).
  • Crisis Text Line can be reached by texting "home" to 741741 from anywhere in the U.S. A real person, trained in crisis counseling, will respond. This service is anonymous. (They won't see your phone number.) It's also free on cell phone plans with AT&T, T-Mobile, Sprint, or Verizon. Otherwise, standard rates may apply.
  • ULifeline is an online mental health resource for students. The ULifeline website has a search tool that can help you connect with mental health resources on your campus.
  • Active Minds aims to increase awareness about student mental health. The organization has chapters on many campuses.
  • The National Sexual Assault Hotline can be reached at 1-800-656-HOPE (4673). There is also an online chat option.
  • The Trevor Project offers crisis intervention and suicide prevention for LGBTQ young people. Call 1-866-488-7386.
  • The National Eating Disorders Association Helpline is available at 1-800-931-2237.
  • SARDAA offers help for people affected by schizophrenia. Call 800-493-2094.
  • Alcoholics Anonymous is a fellowship of people who have drinking problems.
  • Narcotics Anonymous is a fellowship of people who have addictions to narcotics.
  • Al-Anon offers support if your life is impacted by someone else's drinking.
  • Nar-Anon offers support if your life is impacted by someone else's drug use.

2. Get enough sleep.

Sleep is a key ingredient for good mental health and academic success. But most college students aren't getting enough of it. In fact, 70 percent of students are getting less than the recommended eight hours a night.13

If you feel like you're too busy or too stressed to sleep, check out these tips:

  • Go to bed and wake up on a regular schedule. Yes, even on the weekend. You might feel weird at first, but it will help train your body to fall asleep easier.
  • Avoid long naps. You may be tempted to take a long nap in the middle of the afternoon, but it will be harder to fall asleep later that night.
  • Limit caffeine and alcohol before bed. Limiting caffeine may seem obvious, but what might not be as obvious is avoiding alcohol. Alcohol may help you fall asleep faster, but it can also lead to restless, disturbed sleep.
  • Try to avoid screen time before bedtime. Sleeping with your phone is never a good idea!
  • Exercise during the day. Activity during the day will help you sleep. But avoid working out too late at night as that can keep you awake later.

3. Get moving.

Numerous studies show exercise's positive role in improving mental health. For example, college students can reduce anxiety by engaging in physical activities like yoga that encourage mindfulness. And cardio exercise has been linked to improvements in depression.

You don't have to be a super jock to get these benefits. In fact, research suggests that a moderate level of activity (fewer than six hours a week) is actually more beneficial than marathon workouts. Fortunately, many colleges offer fun ways to exercise, from intramural sports to fitness classes. So creating a college fitness plan can be simple and fun.

Suggest taking a walk with a study partner. Do some yoga when you wake up. Or try a new team sport, just for fun. The key is to do stuff you enjoy—otherwise, you might not stick to it.

4. Eat well.

College students aren't exactly famous for healthy eating. And cafeterias and busy schedules aren't always a recipe for a nutritious diet. But eating well in college doesn't have to be difficult. Focus on whole foods, making sure you get enough complex carbs, protein, healthy fats, and vitamins.

5. Build your support system.

College is an exciting time and a chance to reinvent yourself. But it's hard to do everything alone. Having the support of friends and/or family will help your mental health.

Of course, if you're experiencing mental health challenges, it can be difficult to connect with others. And you might ask yourself whether you should tell your friends what you're going through. It's a personal decision, and it might be something to talk about with a counselor.

If you do tell friends, let them know what they can do to support you. For example, if you are taking medication that doesn't mix well with alcohol, let them know not to pressure you to drink. Remember that many people have experienced mental health challenges, even if they don't all talk about them. So don't be embarrassed.

You're in control of what other people know. If you do decide to talk about your mental health, you don't have to share everything. Just talk about the things you are comfortable sharing. Writing out a script first can help.

As well, many campuses have mental health support groups. These groups can be a great way to connect with other people who are going through the same things you are. For instance, a NAMI support group is a mental health support group run by the National Alliance on Mental Illness. NAMI groups are found on many campuses.

In general, a support group offers opportunities to connect with other students in a safe and confidential space. Groups often host discussions, social activities, and educational events.

You can take an active role in managing your mental health support network before you even start college. When researching schools, see if you can find answers to these questions:

  • What kind of mental health support does each school provide?
  • What is the procedure for making an appointment?
  • Are there any fees for accessing mental health services on campuses?
  • What is the procedure for students who are having a mental health crisis outside of the counseling center hours?
  • Are there support groups on campus?

6. Avoid drugs and alcohol.

When you're overwhelmed, it's easy to see drugs or alcohol as a solution to lowering your stress levels. But many common mental illnesses are actually made worse by substance abuse.

Alcohol may provide a temporary sense of well-being, but it's a depressant. That means its effect on your nervous system is to slow down physical and psychological activity, possibly leading to depression over time. Alcohol use can also cause problems like car accidents, health issues, illegal activities, and bad decisions related to sex. Obviously, these issues impact your mental health.

Prescription drug use can also affect your mental health. One third of college students abuse prescription drugs while they're at college.14 Abusing prescription drugs can exacerbate the symptoms of mental illness or even trigger them. But even used correctly, some prescription drugs can cause mental health problems. Talk to your doctor about the psychological side effects of any medication you're taking.

7. Reduce your stress.

Stress is not classed as a mental illness in and of itself. And, by itself, stress can't cause a mental illness, but it can trigger underlying problems and contribute to poor mental health over time. In fact, a bit of stress isn't necessarily a bad thing. For example, sometimes we need the added pressure of a deadline in order to finish a project. But many people do experience a connection between stress and mental health. Stress affects your mental and physical health by lowering your resistance to illness and making you more vulnerable to problems.

But how can you reduce stress while you're in college? After all, it seems as if there is a stress epidemic on campuses across the U.S. In fact, 88 percent of college students are affected by stress and feel overwhelmed by everything on their plates.7 Fortunately, the tips outlined above can help relieve stress. Also, mindfulness activities like meditation can help you cope. These books are good introductions:

For more info about stress in college, read "College Stress: Why It's a Problem and What You Can Do About It."

Mental Health Issues and Your Classes: Rights and Responsibilities

College Student's Mental HealthMental health problems can affect your learning by making it harder to concentrate and lowering your energy and motivation. So if you're experiencing trouble with your mental health, you may be worried about your grades and staying afloat at school. Fortunately, mental health is covered under the ADA (Americans with Disabilities Act), which protects you from mental health discrimination. As a result, colleges must make reasonable accommodations and help you access services. These accommodations are your legal right, so don't be afraid to ask for them. However, you have to follow the procedures for your school.

Look at your college's website to find information about its services for students with disabilities and its mental health policies. These services should include making sure that school is accessible for you. For example, if you experience panic attacks and anxiety in large crowds, you can ask for a private room to take an exam. (But you can't request an easier exam.) Or if you feel uncomfortable having a roommate because you are worried about having a manic episode, you can request a private dorm room.

Although anxiety and depression are considered disabilities under the ADA, in order to qualify for any accommodation due to a diagnosed mental health disability, you usually need documentation from a physician, and you usually have to register with the campus disability office. If you have a copy of your Individualized Education Program (IEP) from high school, that can provide useful info, but you will also need documentation from a healthcare provider.

If you experienced a mental health condition in high school, you may have worked with a parent and school counselor to create your IEP. Now that you are in college, you need to be a bit more proactive. Once you're over the age of 18, you are an adult in the eyes of the law (even if you don't always feel like it yet). So college administrators and mental health professionals work primarily with you now, not a parent. Of course, parents can often be trusted resources and part of a support system. But you are the main point of contact about your academic performance and mental health.

If you experience a mental health crisis or find that you're really struggling, you may want to consider a medical leave of absence. Your academic advisor or your school's disability office can explain the procedures for your school.

What to Do If You Are Worried About a Friend's Mental Health

If you're worrying about a friend's mental stability, it can be hard to know what to do. But often, the best first step is as simple as asking your friend how he or she is doing.

If you're looking for ways to start the conversation, this site offers some great approaches to opening the lines of communication: Seize the Awkward. Sometimes conversations like this do feel awkward at first, but your friend might be waiting for a chance to talk. If you don't get a great response the first time, don't give up. And keep these tips in mind:

  • Get help. If you think your friend is at risk of self-harm or if you feel in over your head, get outside help. In an emergency, call 911. If you or someone you know is contemplating suicide, call the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline at 1-800-273-TALK (8255). If you're feeling stressed or uncertain, reach out to a parent or counselor.
  • Don't judge. A mental health issue is not your friend's fault. It's not a choice, and there usually isn't a simple solution.
  • Be careful with gossip. Although it's important to get help if your friend needs it, you don't need to tell other, less helpful people confidential things about anyone's mental health. Ask yourself if you're really helping anyone when you repeat things.
  • Be patient. If your friend doesn't seem like himself or herself, don't take it personally. And if a friend turns down your social invitations, don't stop extending them.
  • Look after yourself. Remember: You're not responsible for your friend's mental health. If worrying about your friend is affecting your own health or your studies, talk to someone. Your own mental health needs are important too.
  • Be careful not to give too much "advice." Mental illness is complex. Telling someone with depression to cheer up likely won't help him or her. And inviting a friend with anxiety to your yoga class is nice, but don't sell it as a solution that will instantly cure his or her anxiety. College students aren't crazy about getting advice as a general rule, and students experiencing mental health struggles may push people away if well-meaning tips on how to be mentally healthy start to feel overwhelming. So just be there for your friend and listen. Recommend getting help and find resources for assistance. But tread lightly if you're trying to solve everything.

How Parents Can Support a College Student's Mental Health

There's no easy way to put it: Worrying about mental health in college students can be an extremely tough experience for parents. On top of the general worry about their kids' well-being, many parents have difficulties accepting the fact that once their children are 18, they no longer have any legal right to their kids' academic and health information, even if they're paying tuition.

How does this affect you? The Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) protects the privacy of your child's academic records, and the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) protects the privacy of health records. In other words, if your adult child is having a hard time, the school may not let you know. There are exceptions for threats of harm, but there isn't a solid consensus about what that means. However, a student can sign authorization forms that give a college permission to share information. If this is a concern for you, discuss the option with your son or daughter.

So, yes, college mental health statistics can seem alarming if you're a parent and feel that you already have enough to worry about when your kid heads to college. What can you do to prepare your child? Check out these steps:

  • Make sure your child knows how to access any services on campus that support mental health. College websites often have this information, or your child can talk to an academic advisor.
  • Some students start college without ever having performed some of the basic tasks involved in looking after their healthcare needs, such as making a doctor's appointment or filling a prescription. And they often have no idea how the healthcare system works. Take a moment to review some basics with your child before college starts.
  • Worrying can feel more intense if your child lives in a college residence, not at home. If your child has been seeing a mental health professional prior to college, find a way to continue his or her mental health care close to the college if necessary.
  • Many colleges have procedures to follow if a parent hasn't heard from a child in a while. For example, the college might request that you contact the dean of students or the residence advisor. Find out what the policy is at your child's college.
  • If your child is on your insurance policy, review the terms. Is there a preferred hospital near campus?
  • Don't nag, no matter how tempting it may be. You know sleep is important. Your child probably does too. But instead of lecturing about sleep, ask how it feels to miss a night.
  • If your family has a history of mental health conditions, talk about it with your child. As he or she gains more independence and deals with mental health professionals alone, knowing about your family history could be important.
  • Be there for your college student. Mental health problems can be isolating, and our kids need to know we accept them without judgement. Keep the lines of communication open, and be sure to listen.

Dealing With Mental Health Emergencies

Dealing With Mental Health EmergenciesUnfortunately, mental health emergencies do happen at college. Suicide rates have risen for people between 15 and 24 years of age, having tripled since the 1950s.15 An alarming one in five college students say they have suicidal thoughts.16 In fact, suicide is the second-highest cause of death among college students.17 (The leading cause of death among college students is accidents.16) Although it's difficult to track exact numbers since a cause of death isn't always clear, about 1,000 college students die from suicide on American campuses every year.18

If you're worried about someone's mental health (or even your own), you may be wondering how to tell whether it's an emergency. If you think someone is at risk of harming himself or herself (or others), take action. It's always better to respond if you think there might be a crisis, even if you're not 100-percent sure.

If you notice any signs that someone might be thinking of hurting himself or herself, seek help. Some warning signs include:

  • Talking about wanting to die
  • Refusing to get help
  • Talking about being a burden to others
  • Withdrawing from social contact
  • Talking about feeling trapped or hopeless
  • A sudden, mysterious happiness, which might be appearing because a solution seems to be close
  • Giving important things away
  • Buying a gun or another potentially lethal object
  • Talking about making plans for suicide or researching ways to carry it out
  • Suddenly not caring about appearance or personal hygiene

In an emergency, call 911. If you or someone you know is contemplating suicide, call the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline at 1-800-273-TALK (8255).

1 American Psychological Association, "College students' mental health is a growing concern, survey finds," website last visited on October 24, 2018.

2 Active Minds, website last visited on October 24, 2018.

3 American Psychological Association, "One in Three College Freshmen Worldwide Reports Mental Health Disorder," website last visited on October 25, 2018.

4 ABC News, "3 out of 4 college students say they're stressed, many report suicidal thoughts: Study," website last visited on October 24, 2018.

5 National Alliance on Mental Illness, College Students Speak: A Survey Report on Mental Health," website last visited on October 24, 2018.

6 Scientific American, "Surging Demand for Mental Health Care Jams College Services," website last visited on October 24, 2018.

7 Center for Collegiate Mental Health, 2016 Annual Report, website last visited on October 24, 2018.

8 American College Health Association, National College Health Assessment II: Undergraduate Student Reference Group: Executive Summary, Spring 2018, website last visited on October 24, 2018.

9 Child Mind Institute, "Eating Disorders and College," website last visited on October 24, 2018.

10 Academic Psychiatry, "College Students: Mental Health Problems and Treatment Considerations," website last visited on October 24, 2018.

11 Verywell Mind, "Traumatic Exposure and PTSD in College Students," website last visited on October 24, 2018.

12 Psychology Today, "Helping Your College Student Cope With Psychosis," website last visited on October 24, 2018.

13 Nature and Science of Sleep "Causes and consequences of sleepiness among college students," website last visited on October 24, 2018.

14, "11 Facts About Prescription Drug Abuse on College Campuses," website last visited on October 24, 2018.

15 Verywell Mind, "College and Teen Suicide Statistics," website last visited on October 24, 2018.

16 Inside Higher Ed, "Study: 1 in 5 College Students Has Weighed Suicide," website last visited on October 24, 2018.

17 Journal of College Student Psychotherapy "Causes of Mortality Among American College Students: A Pilot Study," website last visited on October 24, 2018.

18 Montana Department of Public Health & Human Services, Suicide in Montana: Facts, Figures, and Formulas for Prevention," website last visited on October 24, 2018.