Registered Nurse Career Information
N urses are an essential part of today's health care systems. They work on the front lines of patient care, providing crucial medical services within hospitals, physicians' offices, community health clinics, nursing facilities, and other health settings.
According to the American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN), there are more than 3.1 million practicing registered nurses in the U.S.* This figure accounts for the majority of all primary care providers, including the largest component of hospital workers and long-term care facility staff.
From assessing patients and monitoring treatment plans to communicating with physicians and advocating for the best interests of patients, RNs can be found performing a broad range of important tasks that are critical to the delivery of comprehensive, quality care.
What is an RN?
If you're interested in the nursing field, then "What is a registered nurse?" is a question that you should definitely be asking.
The RN designation is reserved for nursing professionals who work collaboratively with physicians, licensed practical nurses (LPNs), licensed vocational nurses (LVNs), and other health practitioners to coordinate, deliver, and monitor care to all types of patients, from infants to teenagers to seniors.
In addition to offering clinical care to patients who are sick, injured, or disabled, RNs take on an array of important responsibilities related to:
- Patient advocacy
- Health promotion
- Disease prevention
- Personal support
- Patient education
Because of these responsibilities, an RN must possess a solid foundation of clinical skills and medical knowledge, as well as the ability to think critically, adhere to ethical guidelines, offer empathy, deal with stressful situations, promote safety, and much more.
In addition to working alongside physicians, many RNs practice independently within community settings, and some pursue careers in policy development, research, teaching, or health administration.
What Does a Registered Nurse Do?
Understanding how an RN fits into the health care system requires asking the question, "What does a registered nurse do?"
The specific role held by an RN can vary from situation to situation, but here are some of the fundamental responsibilities that are generally associated with this career:
- Collecting and recording patient histories
- Performing physical examinations
- Taking patient vital signs (blood pressure, pulse, respiratory rate, and temperature)
- Assessing patient symptoms and medical needs
- Communicating and consulting with physicians and other health professionals
- Developing, coordinating, and modifying patient care plans
- Setting treatment goals and measures
- Giving medications and performing treatments
- Operating and monitoring medical equipment
- Documenting patient symptoms, care, and progress
- Evaluating patient progress and establishing care strategies
- Providing wound care and changing dressings
- Ordering diagnostic tests and analyzing results
- Educating patients and their families about treatment and recovery
- Offering counseling and support in stressful situations
- Supervising licensed practical or vocational nurses, nurse aides, and health care aides
- Preparing patients for discharge
Registered nurses can also handle a variety of tasks outside of the direct care realm. These can include operating health screenings, immunization clinics, public education sessions, and blood drives.
Many RNs go on to obtain specialized training in a particular area of nursing. Here are some of the optional disciplines:
- Addictions nursing—Caring for patients who have drug, alcohol, or other substance abuse issues
- Ambulatory care nursing—Caring for outpatients in physicians' offices, clinics, and other venues
- Cardiovascular nursing—Caring for patients who suffer from heart disease or have undergone heart surgery
- Critical care nursing—Caring for patients in intensive care units (ICUs) who need close monitoring
- Emergency (trauma) nursing—Caring for patients in emergency departments, typically those who are facing life-threatening situations
- Genetics nursing—Caring for patients who are suffering from genetic disorders such as Alzheimer's or Huntington's disease
- Holistic nursing—Caring for patients using holistic therapies such as massage, acupuncture, and aromatherapy
- Home health nursing—Caring for patients in residential settings
- Hospice (palliative care) nursing—Caring for patients who are facing terminal illnesses and are in need of end-of-life care
- Infusion nursing—Caring for patients who require medications, fluids, and blood products using intravenous delivery
- Long-term care nursing—Caring for patients with chronic illnesses or disorders
- Medical-surgical nursing—Caring for patients who require general medical care
- Neonatal nursing—Caring for premature and newborn infants
- Nephrology nursing—Caring for patients with kidney disease and related illnesses
- Occupational nursing—Caring for patients with job-related afflictions and working with employers to reduce potential risks
- Oncology nursing—Caring for patients suffering from cancer and cancer-related issues
- Pediatric nursing—Caring for patients in pediatric wards, from infants to teenagers
- Perianesthesia nursing—Caring for patients in pre- and post-operative settings who have received or will receive anesthesia during surgery
- Perioperative nursing—Caring for patients and assisting surgeons during surgery
- Psychiatric nursing—Caring for patients who are dealing with mental health issues such as mood and personality disorders
- Radiologic nursing—Caring for patients who require diagnostic radiation procedures such as ultrasounds and MRIs
- Rehabilitation nursing—Caring for patients who are facing short- or long-term disabilities
- Transplant nursing—Caring for patients who are organ transplant recipients or living donors
It's important to note that each state has its own board of nursing which regulates the official RN scope of practice, determining exactly what an RN is and is not permitted to do. So you may want to check out your state's board of nursing conventions in order to understand the rules that apply where you are planning to practice.
LPN vs. RN: What's the Difference?
With so many designations in the nursing field, it can be tough to know one type of nurse from another or which nurses can do what. There are licensed practical nurses (called licensed vocational nurses in California and Texas), nursing assistants, nurse aides, nurse practitioners, registered nurses, and other nursing professionals who may all work in the same medical settings.
Among these designations, RN vs. LPN is an important distinction to understand.
- Has obtained a diploma, associate degree, or bachelor's degree in nursing
- Has passed the National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses (NCLEX-RN)
- Can provide complex care to patients in an independent or collaborative capacity
- Can assess patients, develop and adjust care plans, and order diagnostic tests as he or she sees fit
- Can handle higher-level tasks such as advocating for patients or providing patient and family education
- Can manage, oversee, and delegate duties to LPNs and LVNs, nursing assistants, nurse aides, and health care aides
An LPN (or LVN):
- Has obtained a certificate or diploma in nursing
- Has passed the National Council Licensure Examination for Practical Nurses (NCLEX-PN)
- Can provide routine care under the direction and supervision of an RN, physician, or another health practitioner
- Cannot make decisions about patient care independently
- Mainly assists with basic care such as personal hygiene, medication, and mobility issues
Becoming an LPN (or LVN) generally requires less time and less education. However, the job also comes with less responsibility and less room for advancement. In addition, LPNs don't commonly earn as much as RNs.
For many, LPN is considered a stepping-stone toward becoming an RN. Many nursing students complete an LPN or LVN program, take the appropriate licensing examination, and gain some experience in the field before going on to take a registered nursing program.
RN vs. BSN: What is the Difference Between These Nursing Designations?
With so many abbreviations to understand (LPN, LVN, RN, APRN, BSN, MSN, etc.), this is a common question. In fact, "RN vs. BSN" is a common online search. But the two designations can be a little misleading.
RN is a professional nursing designation, whereas BSN stands for "Bachelor of Science in Nursing," which is an education credential.
Many RNs hold BSN degrees (or a BS in Nursing, which is essentially the same thing) since this is the preferred education for most positions in the field. However, a BSN is not formally required to join the registered nursing profession. Some RNs who graduate with a diploma or associate degree go on to complete their BSN degree (often through a bridge program) in order to advance to a clinical or administrative position, take on additional responsibility, or enroll in a master's degree program.
It is predicted that, in the future, BSNs will be required for all new RNs even though no regulations exist for this yet. A growing number of employers, however, will only hire entry-level RNs who possess a BSN, and many include "BSN preferred" in their job postings.
The push for registered nurses with BSNs is likely due to the fact that RNs who hold a BSN tend to have better outcomes for their patients. This fact may be attributed to the general education component of the bachelor's degree programs, which are designed to help students gain vital communication, critical thinking, leadership, and decision-making skills. Plus, many of these programs include additional practicum experiences and more in-depth medical study.
Can You Tell Me How to Become a Registered Nurse?
If you are interested in a career within this rewarding field, then you will, of course, want to know how to become an RN.
Here are the steps you need to take in order to make it happen:
1. Enroll in a registered nursing program
A number of options exist for registered nursing education, including hospital-based diploma programs and post-secondary school programs that award associate and bachelor's degrees.
Hospital-based diploma programs are typically offered at hospitals in partnership with local vocational schools and are designed to cover basic areas of nursing care and theory while preparing students to take the appropriate licensing examination. This is considered the minimum level of education necessary to enter the RN profession.
Associate degree programs provide more instruction than hospital-based diploma programs but still offer a quicker route than a bachelor's degree program. Such programs generally consist of comprehensive clinical and theoretical training, but they usually include only a small amount of general education components.
A bachelor's degree program is the most in-depth educational option and covers more clinical and general education topics than diploma or associate degree programs. By earning a bachelor's degree in the nursing field, you can build a strong foundation in areas such as nursing care and theory as well as behavioral sciences, humanities, health care delivery systems, health policy, and leadership.
2. Take (and pass) the NCLEX-RN examination
After you complete one of the program options listed above, you'll need to apply to take, sit for, and pass the NCLEX-RN licensing examination. This is a requirement in all U.S. states and territories as well as the District of Columbia, and it must be completed before you can practice in the field.
3. Start applying for RN positions
Getting your first job as an RN can be exciting. If your school offers job placement assistance or has a career services department, you could have the opportunity to be lined up with interviews, or you may have access to online job banks. Additionally, many practicum opportunities can result in job offers.
If you have trouble landing a position right off the bat, then volunteering your time with local organizations, hospitals, or clinics can be an excellent way to add experience to your resume and make industry contacts. Further to this, it can be a good idea to keep an eye out for RN positions that are temporary or part time. While these may not be your ideal choice, they can offer the chance to build experience or gain seniority. Plus, depending on the state you are planning to practice in, your RN license could qualify you to work as a nursing assistant or practical/vocational nurse until you find a suitable RN position.
What are the Prerequisites for Entering a Registered Nursing Program?
If you are thinking about a career as a registered nurse, then you may need to possess the following credentials in order to be accepted into an RN program:
- High school diploma or GED equivalent
- CPR certification
- High school math and/or science credits
- Basic mathematic competency
In addition to any specifically required items, you may want to consider:
- Arranging a job shadowing experience or talking to someone already in the profession
- Taking as many science and math courses as you can in high school
- Developing strong study skills
What are the Typical RN Requirements?
You need to be aware of the typical registered nurse education requirements as well as the requirements for RN licensing, which include passing the NCLEX-RN examination. This comprehensive examination is required for practice nationwide. It is made up of questions delivered through computer testing. Four components are covered within the NCLEX-RN exam, including:
- Health promotion and maintenance
- Physiological integrity
- Psychosocial integrity
- Safe and effective care environment
To take the NCLEX-RN examination, you will need to:
- Be at least 18 years old
- Graduate from a recognized nursing program
- Possess a high school diploma or GED equivalent
- Register for the exam and pay the fee (approximately $200)
- Provide your fingerprints, signature, photograph, and palm vein scan
- Submit to (and clear) a background check
Additionally, you may have to satisfy other registered nurse requirements for specific state boards of nursing. That's why it's a good idea to check out conditions for licensing in your state before getting started. Further to this, it is often necessary to earn continuing education credits in order to keep your nursing license current.
Depending on where you plan to practice, you will also need professional liability insurance, either at the time that you begin clinical rotations or once you are licensed and ready to start working in the field.
If you are interested in obtaining further credentials, such as certifications related to specialized care, then there are a number of organizations that offer that service.
Is There Room For Advancement in the Registered Nursing Profession?
If you're an ambitious individual who is considering a career as an RN, then you may be wondering if there is room for advancement in the field.
The answer is yes. Abundant opportunities exist for expanding an RN career. Through experience and supplemental education in the field, you could move up toward management, coordination, and administration positions.
Additionally, many registered nurses return to school in order to obtain a Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN) or Master of Science in Nursing (MSN) degree. Obtaining a bachelor's degree (if you choose to initially complete a diploma or associate degree program) can allow you to compete for a variety of senior-level positions. Plus, there are online programs designed specifically for working RNs who want to earn a bachelor's, master's, or even doctorate degree while maintaining their current position and workload.
By going on to earn a Master of Science in Nursing (MSN) degree, you could qualify to pursue a focused designation as an advanced practice registered nurse (APRN). Within this designation, you could choose to become a:
- Clinical nurse specialist (CNS)—A CNS offers care and consultations in a variety of specialized areas such as mental health or even administration, research, or education. Those with this designation tend to work in hospitals and other clinical settings.
- Certified registered nurse anesthetist (CRNA)—A CRNA handles anesthesia delivery as well as pre- and post-operative care. CRNAs can administer anesthesia independently within a variety of health environments such as dental offices and operating rooms.
- Certified nurse-midwife (CNM)—A CNM is responsible for prenatal care as well as labor and delivery. Typically, CNMs work in hospitals, birthing centers, and home settings, and they can also handle postpartum care.
- Nurse practitioner (NP)—An NP provides vital primary care within a variety of community situations. NPs can examine, assess, diagnose, and treat patients independently or with physician consultation and supervision (depending on the state of practice).
Additionally, some RNs choose to practice in areas that don't involve clinical care. Some of these careers include:
- Forensic nursing
- Legal nurse consulting
- Nursing administration
- Nursing education
- Nursing informatics
- Nursing research
- Health care consulting
- Medical writing and editing
- Medical and pharmaceutical sales
A Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) or Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) degree can further prepare you to advance to high-level research, leadership, administration, or education roles.
How Long Does It Take to Become a Registered Nurse?
When choosing a career, the length of time spent in school can be an important factor in your decision-making. So knowing how long it takes to become an RN is likely something you want to seriously consider.
Depending on the specific program you choose, it generally takes anywhere from two to four years to complete a registered nursing program and pass the NCLEX-RN exam.
Here are the most common program options:
- Hospital-based diploma: Two to three years
- Associate Degree in Nursing (ADN) program: Two to three years
- Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN) or Bachelor in Nursing degree program: Four years
- Accelerated Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN) degree program (for those who already possess a bachelor's degree in another field): 11 to 18 months
- Master of Science in Nursing (MSN) program (for those who already possess a bachelor's degree): One to two years
Once you graduate from a registered nursing program, you can apply to take the NCLEX-RN examination. According to 2012 statistics (encompassing January through September) from the National Council of State Boards of Nursing, 90.87 percent of test takers in the U.S. passed the exam on the first attempt.** While awaiting your results, you can apply for an interim permit that allows for supervised practice until your licensure becomes official.
What Can I Learn in a Registered Nursing Program?
Registered nursing program curricula can be somewhat different from school to school. However, many important topics are common to all RN programs. These subjects can include:
- Human anatomy and physiology
- Pathophysiology (physiology of disease)
- Hemodynamics, blood, and blood products
- Pharmacology (types of drugs, side effects, dosages, and interactions)
- Safety and infection control procedures and concepts
- Patients' rights and advocacy
- Confidentiality and information security
- Legal and ethical responsibilities
- Case assignment, management, supervision, and delegation
- Nutrition and oral hydration
- Diagnostic testing and laboratory procedures
- Parenteral and intravenous (IV) therapies and devices
- Vital sign changes and abnormalities
- Self-care, mobility, and personal hygiene
- Health promotion and disease prevention
- Nursing processes (assessment, analysis, planning, implementation, and evaluation)
- Care planning (advanced directives, informed consent, and continuity of care)
- Hospice and end-of-life care
- Medical emergency care and response planning
- Safe and correct equipment usage
- Crisis management and behavioral intervention
- Patient communication and support systems
- Potential complications from surgery, treatment, and testing
- Lifestyle choices and high-risk behaviors
- Health screening and physical assessment techniques
- Mental health concepts
- Developmental stages, transitions, and the aging process
- Abuse, neglect, and substance abuse
- Cultural, religious, and spiritual awareness
- Grief, loss, and stress management
Many programs also cover a variety of nursing care specialties such as geriatric, obstetric, mental health, palliative, and surgical.
Although you can expect that each RN program won't contain the exact same materials, the knowledge and skills needed to pass the NCLEX-RN are universal, so every program is likely founded upon the same goals.
In addition to classroom-based learning, RN programs contain one or more practicum components, which include clinical rotations. These practicums are designed to provide hands-on experience within various medical settings such as hospital departments, long-term care facilities, and community health organizations. Not only are clinical rotations a requirement of licensing, they are also an opportunity to put your theoretical knowledge into practice.
How Much Does RN School Cost?
If you are considering a registered nursing career, then it's natural that you would ask, "How much does RN school cost?"
The tuition for an RN program can range from a few thousand dollars to well over $10,000 per year of study. Some programs (including those that lead to a hospital diploma or associate degree) last approximately two years, whereas others (such as those that lead to a bachelor's degree) can take up to four years to complete.
When considering which program is right for you, the sticker price should not necessarily be the deciding factor. Here are some things to ask when determining if a program is good value for its cost:
- What credential will you receive at the end of the program?
- Is the institution accredited, and does the program have programmatic accreditation?
- Does the program include an accelerated curriculum?
- Is certification preparation included?
- Is the NCLEX-RN examination fee covered?
- Where will the practicum components take place?
- What are the school's facilities and equipment like? Are they up to industry standards?
- Does the school have a good reputation for producing qualified graduates?
- What is the NCLEX-RN pass rate for students who have completed the program?
- Is job placement assistance included in the cost of tuition?
- Does the school cover textbooks, uniforms, and other supplies?
Also, if you are already working as an LPN (or an LVN), you might be able to qualify for tuition reimbursement (or compensation) from your employer or union. This is becoming an increasingly common practice within the nursing field. Plus, some employers have educational repayment systems, trading the cost of tuition for work commitments.
What is an Average RN Salary?
Before becoming a registered nurse, it is a good idea to know the answer to the question, "How much does an RN make?"
National estimates show that the median registered nurse salary in the U.S. for 2011 was $65,960, which works out to $31.71 per hour.***
In contrast, the lowest-earning 10 percent of RNs received $44,970 or less ($21.61 or less per hour), whereas the highest-earning 10 percent of RNs were paid $96,630 or more ($46.46 or more per hour).
Another thing to consider when thinking about this data is that many employers of RNs include incentives such as on-site childcare facilities, flexible work schedules, and educational benefits.
Additionally, earning potential can vary depending on the type of employer you're interested in working for. That's why it's a good idea to know the expected salary for RN professionals in different work settings.
So, how much does a registered nurse make in common work environments? According to national estimates (from May 2011), here are the annual mean wages for RNs who work in: ***
- Hospitals: $69,810 ($33.56 per hour)
- Physicians' offices: $72,890 ($35.04 per hour)
- Home health settings: $65,120 ($31.31 per hour)
- Nursing care facilities: $60,830 ($29.25 per hour)
- Outpatient care centers: $72,220 ($34.72 per hour)
Further to this, the five states where RNs earn the most include California, Massachusetts, Hawaii, Alaska, and Nevada. The lowest-paying states include Iowa, South Dakota, Oklahoma, West Virginia, and Arkansas.
Is the Registered Nurse Job Outlook Positive?
If you are interested in working in the nursing field, it can be reassuring to know that the RN job outlook for the foreseeable future is positive.
National estimates project that employment of RNs will increase by approximately 26 percent from 2010 to 2020.**** This growth can be attributed to a number of causes, including:
- Technological advances in the health care industry
- Increased focus on preventive medical care
- A substantial aging population of baby boomers requiring additional health care
- Expansion of RNs working in primary care positions within community settings
- Recent health care reforms that provide increased access to medical services
- A generation of RNs who are nearing retirement
It is important to note that this growth is forecasted to occur mainly outside of hospital settings. The majority of openings are expected to occur in long-term care, home health care, and community service settings.
Further to this, RNs who hold a bachelor's degree are expected to have better prospects for employment.
Where Do Registered Nurses Work?
When picturing an RN at work, it is common to envision a hospital as the setting. Although the bulk of nurses do work in hospitals, they can also be found in places such as:
- Doctors' offices
- Ambulatory (outpatient) care centers
- Home health care services
- Nursing homes
- Rehabilitation centers
- Correctional facilities
- Military settings
- Public health clinics
In addition to clinical settings, some RNs choose to pursue employment within administrative and teaching environments, which can mean working in a research facility, college, university, or vocational school.
What are the Drawbacks and Benefits of Being a Registered Nurse?
All career choices have their upsides and downsides. So before taking the first step toward becoming a registered nurse, benefits and drawbacks of this field should definitely be considered.
Benefits of being a registered nurse:
- It's a respected profession—Becoming a nurse can mean working in a field that is both valued and esteemed.
- You can specialize or advance your practice—Through experience and education, you can qualify to work in a variety of nursing areas or move into supervisory or administrative positions.
- The work is immensely rewarding—The fulfilling nature of the work is a top reason for choosing this profession. From caring for patients to comforting family members, you could make a real difference in the lives of others.
- Nursing is a universal profession—Health care is an essential service. That means job opportunities can be found in all geographic locations.
- There is a nursing shortage—Thanks to medical advances, an aging population, and a large number of nurses nearing retirement, there is a growing shortage of nurses. As an RN, that can result in increased opportunities as well as potential employers competing to retain talented staff.
- It's a team effort—RNs work alongside a number of professionals, including physicians, practical/vocational nurses, and other health practitioners. This means that you could be part of a collaborative team, working toward the same goals.
- No day is the same—In the field of nursing, you can expect to encounter patients of all of ages, backgrounds, and situations, giving you the opportunity to enjoy varied and challenging work.
- The pay can be attractive—In 2011 (according to national estimates), the RN annual mean wage was about $69,110, which is considerably higher than the annual mean wage for all occupations ($45,230).***
- Flexible hours can be a good thing—Although there can be a downside to shiftwork, many RNs prefer having 12-hour shifts because they often result in condensed workweeks. Some nurses also opt for part-time employment, especially those with young children.
Drawbacks of being a registered nurse:
- The job can be stressful—Working with those who are critically ill or injured, or are in emotional distress, can be taxing, especially in situations where you're already under time pressure or dealing with a large caseload.
- Some patients can be difficult to deal with—Irritable, upset, or even aggressive patients can make the job hard at times. That's why it's important to be able to communicate effectively and draw upon your empathetic side.
- It's not all dealing with patients—Although direct patient care accounts for a substantial amount of the work, RNs also spend a good portion of their time completing forms, updating charts, and handling other administrative duties.
- You could be exposed to contagions—Naturally, working with patients who are sick could make you vulnerable to a variety of illnesses. However, proper infection control procedures can greatly minimize this risk.
- Schedules can be less than ideal—Since hospital and residential facility patients often need around-the-clock care, you could be required to work evenings, weekends, and holidays, or even be available on an on-call basis.
- Understaffing can be a problem—Thanks to an industry-wide nursing shortage, you could have to deal with increased workloads, additional shifts, and further stress, amplifying the occurrence of other problems.
- The work can be physically demanding—As an RN, you could be required to stay on your feet for long periods of time. Plus, you could be expected to lift and move patients, which can result in injury. Of course, following safe patient handling practices and procedures can reduce the risk of harm.
- Nurses are susceptible to burnout and fatigue—Long hours combined with emotionally and physically intense work can cause RNs to suffer from burnout and fatigue. This can increase the possibility for errors, so it's important to be aware of this hazard and look out for warning signs.
- Bureaucracy can be a problem—If working for a union, you may have to deal with issues such as contract negotiations, strikes, and positions being awarded based upon seniority rather than performance.
Is Becoming a Registered Nurse the Right Choice for Me?
Before making the important choice to pursue a career as an RN, you should consider whether this profession is a match for your individual strengths, values, and interests.
Here are some questions to think about:
- Do you have the ability to stay calm under pressure?
- Are you patient, compassionate, and empathetic?
- Are you organized and good at paying attention to details?
- Is working closely with others something that you would enjoy?
- Are you a good team player who also has the ability to work independently?
- Do you possess strong communication skills?
- Could you handle working with things such as blood and other bodily fluids?
- Do you enjoy being challenged on a regular basis?
- Do you value performing meaningful work?
- Does shiftwork (and the possibility of changing schedules) work for you?
- Are you dependable, responsible, and capable of adhering to strict ethical guidelines?
By carefully weighing the answers to these questions, you should get a better idea about whether or not registered nursing is a good fit for your career future.
How Can I Get Started?
Now that you have an understanding about what a registered nurse is, what it takes to become a registered nurse, and how to succeed in the field, you may be ready to take the next step toward a career as an RN.
To learn more about the educational options available, begin by checking out this guide to registered nursing schools and programs.
* American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN), website last accessed on November 16, 2012.
** National Council of State Boards of Nursing (NCSBN), 2012 NCLEX Pass Rates, website last accessed November 22, 2012.
*** Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Employment Statistics, website last accessed on November 21, 2012.
**** Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2012-13 Edition, website last accessed on November 22, 2012.
American Nurses Association (ANA), website last accessed on November 21, 2012.
National Student Nurses' Association (NSNA), website last accessed on November 21, 2012.
American Association of Nurse Anesthetists (AANA), website last accessed on November 21, 2012.
American Medical Association (AMA), website last accessed on November 22, 2012.
The Occupational Information Network (O*NET), website last accessed on November 22, 2012.