Fashion Designer Career Information
T his morning you got dressed. You went to your closet and chose items based on your personal style. You also probably thought about the activities you were planning to do, the weather, and other factors. What you may not have considered is that fashion designers conceived each and every thing you put on.
What is a Fashion Designer?
A fashion designer is an individual who designs clothing. Fashion designers work with all types of apparel, from wedding gowns to children's wear to industrial safety gear—and everything in between. They even design accessories, such as handbags and hats.
This profession is not as simple as whipping up a pretty drawing or sewing a single top. Designing clothing is a complicated job that entails deliberating over function, cost, aesthetics, style, and more. That means considering a wide range of factors, including style trends and the intended consumers. Plus, fashion designers work within budget constraints, requiring them to deliver a product at a specified cost and within an allotted time frame.
This broad description doesn't do justice in conveying the wide range of tasks and responsibilities that fall under this profession. Below is a list of career options that fall under the umbrella of fashion design to help you understand the breadth of opportunities in this field:
- Design assistant
- Fashion designer
- Textile designer
- CAD designer
- Technical designer
- Pattern maker or cutter
- Tailor or seamstress
- Fashion buyer
- Fashion forecaster
- Production manager
- Manufacturing coordinator
- Sample sewer
- Costume designer
In addition, there are a number of professions related to the business side of the industry (beyond the technical and creative aspects). For example, fashion journalists and fashion retail managers aren't directly related to the production of apparel, but they do play important roles.
What is a Typical Fashion Designer Job Description?
A typical fashion designer job description can include:
- Conceiving ideas for collections and individual garments
- Researching and forecasting industry trends
- Sketching designs for various types of apparel and accessories
- Developing storyboards and inspiration boards
- Collaborating with design teams to create garments and lines
- Selecting fabrics, patterns, colors, silhouettes, trims, and embellishments
- Sourcing materials and coordinating labor for production
- Adhering to budgets and deadlines set by clients and supervisors
- Presenting design ideas for approval or sale
- Designing textiles for use in garments
- Drafting patterns using computer applications and manual techniques
- Manipulating and grading patterns
- Utilizing computer-aided design (CAD) applications to digitize designs
- Creating technical design illustrations (flats)
- Developing and refining prototype garments
- Constructing sample garments
- Attending trade shows to promote or purchase products
- Marketing designs at a wholesale, retail, or consumer level
This is just a sampling of the various responsibilities that can be handled by a fashion designer. Depending on a number of factors, such as size of company or level of expertise, you could be tasked with many or just a few of these items. Upon entering the industry, you could land a junior designer or design assistant position in which you might assist in one specific area, such as sourcing notions (trim, buttons, zippers, etc.), sewing production samples, or putting together storyboards.
Fashion designers generally work in a particular niche. The most popular specializations include:
- Children's wear
- Intimate apparel
- Bridal/special occasion wear
- Women's day wear
- Women's evening wear
- Men's day wear
- Men's evening wear
If you're interested in learning more about what various roles in the fashion design industry entail, this article can provide additional insight.
Now that you have a picture of what it's like to work in the fashion design profession, you might be ready to learn how to be a fashion designer, starting with how to meet the requirements and prerequisites associated with this career path. The information below can provide in-depth insight into these areas.
Can You Tell Me How to Become a Fashion Designer?
In order to understand how to become a fashion designer, it's important to realize that there isn't one path to achieving this goal.
Although formal education is not the only option, it certainly offers the most potential. In the past, fashion designer hopefuls could start out in a fashion-related setting and work their way up through the ranks. However, this isn't a guaranteed route. Unless you have the opportunity to learn all facets of design, you could be limited by a lack of skill and knowledge. These days, a background in just one department or area of fashion design is likely not enough to propel you to full designer status. To become a fashion designer, it's important to possess a strong understanding of a variety of topics, from textile composition to manufacturing processes to pattern drafting.
Ideally, the first step toward becoming a fashion designer should include applying to a post-secondary fashion program. There are a wide range of options to choose from, including vocational schools, art schools, and even prestigious universities. The one you opt for should reflect your career goals, whether you want to open up your own small boutique or land a job with a high-fashion design house.
Additionally, if there is a specific aspect of the design process that you are drawn to, you can often obtain specialized instruction by taking various electives and choosing related internship opportunities.
Upon graduation, you can start pursuing entry-level positions in your area of interest. You may also be hired on during an internship, allowing you to enter the field directly out of school. To obtain a position, you'll need to be armed with a portfolio showcasing your work. This is paramount for a career in the fashion industry and just as important as your resume (if not more so). A portfolio can be a combination of illustrations, photos, tangible garments, and other examples of your achievements.
Starting out in the field, you should expect to be hired on in a junior role. Such positions often include design assistant, pattern drafter, or junior stylist. Within this role, you will most likely perform a lot of low-level (but important) work, allowing you to gain experience in the industry and make valuable network connections.
As you earn your stripes in the field, you can work your way up the ladder toward more coveted positions or branch out as a freelance designer or entrepreneur.
Regardless of your goal, there is no way to start at the top. A career in fashion design is definitely one that will require you to pay your dues.
What is the Education Needed to Become a Fashion Designer?
When researching a potential career as a fashion designer, education requirements are an important factor to understand. Technically, there is no education needed to become a fashion designer. However, formal training is becoming increasingly important. As mentioned above, deciding whether to obtain training in this field depends on your individual goals. But if you plan to pursue work within a larger organization or want to gain the necessary skills to work with industry-standard technology, then education is likely the right option for you. On-the-job training can also be an option for getting into this field, but without a foundation in technical skills and theoretical knowledge, your potential for career opportunities and advancement could be extremely limited.
An advantage of formal education is that many fashion design programs can allow you to take part in an internship, which can provide you with the opportunity to gain real-world experience and make valuable contacts within a very competitive industry. Plus, an internship may even have the potential of turning into a permanent position.
When you get right down to it, the question, "What do you need to become a fashion designer?" can be answered in any number of ways, but the most important things you need to get started are passion and dedication. After that, you can choose the education option that suits you best.
How Long Does it Take to Complete a Fashion Design Program?
Fashion design programs tend to begin at durations of one year and increase in length according to the level of credential you plan to earn. The most common training options are two- and four-year diploma and degree programs. Additionally, many programs include internships, which can be paid or unpaid. This means that, while technically your education could last two to four years, you could be spending some of that time earning a paycheck in your new field.
What are the Prerequisites for Attending a Fashion Design School?
Depending on the specific school and program that you choose, the prerequisites can vary, but a high school diploma (or GED-equivalent) is often required. Some schools will also require basic sewing skills for entry, which is why high school students interested in the field are encouraged to take home economics classes if possible. Arts classes are also very helpful but not usually required.
In addition, many fashion design schools will require you to present or send a portfolio of your work for examination, including photographs of your creations, illustrations, and garments displaying your current level of skill. This may sound a little intimidating if you're not a gifted sewer, but just keep in mind that this is used to assess your creative talents, not your technical abilities. The faculty looking at your work will understand that you don't yet have a formal education. After all, that's why you're applying.
Schools may ask you to take part in an interview during which you could be asked to talk about your interest in fashion, your goals, and any related experience. This is not only a good opportunity to wow faculty with your passion, but also to ask questions of your own and get to know potential instructors.
How Much Can I Expect to Pay For Fashion Design School?
Like most areas of study, there is no concrete price tag on fashion school tuition. The cost can range from a few thousand dollars for a short-term certificate program to well over $30,000 for a degree program.
Before opting for the most inexpensive program, you should consider what the price of tuition covers. The cost of tuition may include:
- Fabric and notions
- Drafting tools and paper
- Art supplies
- Access to professional sewing equipment
- Use of industry-standard CAD technologies
- Trade publications and forecasting services
Additionally, the price of tuition at some schools reflects the reputation of the school, which can help open the door to increased opportunities for internships and jobs upon graduation. Being an alumnus of a respected school can be a substantial asset when applying to positions in a competitive industry like fashion.
What Can I Learn in a Fashion Design Program?
Subjects that typically make up a fashion design program's curriculum include:
- Fashion trends and forecasting—Using a variety of sources to understand industry trends related to color, styling, technology, fabrics, and more
- Market research—Identifying the target market and exploring its demographic information, including income level, expectations, needs, and style
- Pattern design—Creating blueprints for garments using computer-aided drafting applications, as well as manual drafting techniques
- Draping—Directly applying fabric to a three-dimensional mannequin in order to produce a garment design
- Textile design—Developing embellishments, patterns, graphics, and textures for fabrics
- Color and design theory —Applying color, harmony, proportion, rhythm, emphasis, and unity in the development of designs
- Art and fashion history—Understanding the cyclical nature of fashion, the history of the industry, and influences from previous eras
- Model and life drawing—Illustrating designs using knowledge of the human body, light, proportion, fabric rendering, silhouettes, and other factors necessary for effective portrayal of designs
- Sewing and construction—Taking designs from the pattern stage to the finished product, including the steps of cutting, sewing, pressing, fitting, and finishing while using industry-standard tools and equipment
- Business communications—Using professional communication abilities to effectively work with clients, other designers, and manufacturers in the production process
- Computer design applications—Utilizing computer software applications to produce illustrations, photos, technical drawings, inspiration boards, marketing presentations, and more
- Manufacturing and product development—Understanding the process beyond initial design, including costing, sourcing, engineering, and manufacturing
- Technical illustration—Working with computer-aided design and drafting applications to produce accurate technical depictions, as well as garment specification documents
- Design process and development—Exploring the process from initial conception and construction to trade show promotion and retail merchandising
- Portfolio development—Developing a collection of work that displays your achievements in a hard copy and/or digital format
What is a Typical Fashion Designer Salary?
If you're thinking about a career in the fashion industry, you may be considering how much you could potentially make. Since understanding your future earning capacity is important in weighing the factors of an impending career choice, here are some national fashion designer salary statistics (from May 2010) to provide insight:*
- The median annual fashion designer salary came in at $64,530, which works out to $31.05 per hour.
- The top 10 percent of fashion designers made more than $130,890.
- The bottom 10 percent of fashion designers made less than $32,500.
While these numbers can give you a snapshot of the fashion design field, it's important to keep in mind that the answer to the question, "How much does a fashion designer make?" can also depend on level of experience, area of the industry, and type of employment (since fashion designers can also be self-employed or work on a contract basis).
However, if you're considering a career in another area of the fashion industry, you should look further into the specifics of the individual profession, since a fashion design salary could be quite different from a fashion merchandising salary or a fashion marketing salary.
Where Do Fashion Designers Work?
Generally, fashion designers fall into the category of in-house or freelance design. In-house designers work directly for companies who design, manufacture, and sell the apparel at a wholesale or retail level, while freelance designers are self-employed and sell their designs to companies.
By choosing to become a fashion designer, you could have the opportunity to work in:
- Wholesale or manufacturing establishments
- Apparel companies
- Retail organizations
- Film, theater, or dance companies
- Design firms
Geographically speaking, fashion designers tend to find work in major urban centers (as you might expect). The largest hubs for the fashion industry in the U.S. are New York and California, which explains why these states employed nearly 75 percent of all salaried designers, according to statistics from May 2010.*
What is the Outlook for a Career as a Fashion Designer?
Opportunities within the fashion design profession are predicted to remain steady for the decade spanning from 2010 to 2020.* While there is a projected decline in apparel manufacturing positions, advancements in technology-related areas such as fabric innovation are expected to balance out the shift.
Additionally, those who possess a formal education and an exceptional portfolio are anticipated to fare the most favorably in this competitive job market.
What Are the Pros and Cons of Becoming a Fashion Designer?
Like any career, there are ups and downs. Some of the drawbacks of the fashion design profession are:
- Long hours leading up to production deadlines—Prior to the release of a new collection, trade show, or other big event, you could be required to work long hours for an extended period of time. Freelance designers can also face this on a regular basis, but they get to enjoy the trade-off of flexibility.
- Association with negative body image concerns and materialistic values—Not all aspects of the fashion industry are exciting and creative. Certain areas of the industry (although small and not the norm) are responsible for the unflattering reputation of the fashion business.
- Not always finding it glamorous—Contrary to what you might imagine, being a fashion designer is not always flipping through fabric swatches, sketching in your studio, or travelling to Milan for the next fashion show. This profession requires hard work, ruthless attention to detail, and true dedication. While earning your stripes as an intern or assistant designer, you could be setting up fashion show equipment, running errands, or sorting through paperwork.
- Competition that's fierce—Thanks to the above-mentioned illusion of glamour, many individuals want to be part of the industry. However, many of these "spotlight seekers" are weeded out once they are faced with the reality of hard work in a studio rather than red carpets.
- Not always getting to design what you like—You may love evening gowns or high-fashion accessories, but you may not start your career turning out those kinds of garments. A large percentage of fashion design jobs are in more technical or niche markets, meaning you could be designing golf shirts or men's trousers in the beginning of your career.
Here are some of the potential perks of a career in fashion design:
- Travel—From trade shows to fashion weeks, working in the fashion industry can include a range of travel opportunities (depending on your specific position). These could include presenting a new collection to clients in another city, sourcing materials overseas, or working on-location for a television program, film, or play.
- Moments of glamour—While the reality of being a fashion designer isn't all runways and photo shoots, there are times when you could enjoy the glamorous side of the industry.
- Creative expression—A career in fashion design can help your creative talent flourish.
- Enthusiastic coworkers—Thanks to the competitive nature of the fashion design industry, you have to possess a strong level of passion to achieve success in this field. That means you're likely to join a team on which you're not the only one who lives and breathes fashion.
- Ongoing change—Every season is different in the fashion world. Trends flow and technology evolves, which can lessen the chance you'll ever reach a point of boredom in this field.
What Does It Take to Be a Fashion Designer?
In addition to hard work and dedication, the answer to "What does it take to be a fashion designer?" can be summed up this way: It takes refined skills, a strong understanding of the industry, and drive. In order to best prepare for a future in this field, you should take advantage of any opportunity to hone your skills. To this end, you can:
- Sketch—Drawing is a vital skill for a fashion designer, and contrary to what you may think, this is a learned skill. Of course, there are some prodigies who were born to illustrate, but for the majority of designers, hard work and diligence are the keys to learning how to communicate ideas through visual mediums. It's also important to explore painting, sculpture, and other forms of artistic expression (all of which can help you develop an eye for proportion, scale, harmony, and other aspects of design).
- Sew—Technical sewing skills are critical for aspiring fashion designers. Whether you want to work in production or dream of handling the creative direction of an entire brand, hands-on experience using all types of fabrics to create an array of garments will give you invaluable insight into design. You'll learn what fabrics work where, how they fall on the body, what construction techniques to use, and more. You'll also learn about the labor involved in putting together a garment, which is critical for costing and production planning.
- Explore—From art and culture to architecture and media, take time to explore anything that may provide you with inspiration. Like in any creative profession, all areas of life can influence fashion design. By visiting galleries, watching period films, attending plays, or visiting historical sites, you could be fueling your potential for creating inspired and original designs.
- Read—If you're interested in fashion, you're likely already a subscriber to a variety of fashion magazines, and these can be a great source of knowledge. Fashion publications like Vogue and Women's Wear Daily can help you get to know new designers, understand fashion trends, and more. You should consider fashion magazines and professional trade publications (if you have access) required reading.
- Write—Since fashion designers are frequently required to communicate using the written word in addition to visual imaging, it's a good idea to hone this important skill. By practicing your ability to write effectively, you can prepare for the proposals, bids, client emails, and other communications that you may need to present throughout your career.
- Collaborate—As a designer, you will need to work with others. Fashion design is generally a team effort. You may be handling the design of a garment, but you will likely be counting on a number of individuals, from pattern drafters to fit models to marker makers, to help you bring your vision to fruition. Therefore, whenever you have the chance to work in a group setting, you should take advantage of the opportunity.
How Do I Get Started?
Now that you've found answers to some of the most important questions about a career in fashion design, you may be ready to take the next step. A great way to begin is by browsing through this guide to fashion design schools where you can research the educational options available to you.
* Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2012-13 Edition, web site last accessed on July 25, 2012.
National Association of Schools of Art and Design (NASAD), web site last accessed on July 25, 2012.
American Apparel & Footwear Association (AAFA), web site last accessed on July 25, 2012.
Council of Fashion Designers of America (CFDA), web site last accessed on July 25, 2012.
Canadian Apparel Federation (CAF), web site last accessed on July 25, 2012.
The Occupational Information Network (O*NET), web site last accessed on July 25, 2012.